"Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amur. Heilongjiang borders Jilin in the south and Inner Mongolia to the west; it also borders Russia to the north and east.

The interior of the province, which is relatively flat and low in altitude, contains the Muling River, the Naoli River, the Songhua River, the Nen River, and the Mudan River, all tributaries of the Amur's basin, while the northern border forms part of the Amur valley. Xingkai Lake (or Khanka Lake) is found on the border with Russia's Primorsky Krai.

Russian buildings, Temple of Heavenly Bliss, Zhaolin Park are famous tourism destination.

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